Nobel prize 2012 in chemistry – cell surface receptors
- Nobel prize 2012 in chemistry
Nobel prize 2012 in chemistry was jointly awarded to Robert J. Lefkowitz of Duke University and Brian K. Kobilka of Stanford University. They have won Nobel prize 2012 in chemistry for describing the structure of cell surface receptors and for showing the functions of this receptors. The function of receptors means how they sense and reacts to different signals. Our body is a perfect combination of billions of cells. Each cell is capable of sense it’s environment. Life in our body is due to a large number of chemical signals to whom this cells make response . The functions of this cells are depends on this types of chemical signals. Change in the function of a cell is done by the Extracellular signaling molecules such as hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines ,growth factors etc. for example a hormone adrenalin increases our blood presser and makes the heart faster. This means when cells of our heart sense adrenalin they start working more fast. But till 2oth century it was a mystery that how cells can sense their environment like this. So scientists supposed that there must be some cell surface receptors who are responsible for this types of recognition, interpretation and translation of chemical signals into cellular response. But even though scientists suspected the presence of cell surface receptors ,they could not identify them and even could not describe how they work. Nobel prize 2012 in chemistry winner Robert J. Lefkowitz started working to find this cell surface receptors in the late 196os.The Nobel prize 2012 in chemistry winner used radioactivity in order to trace this receptors. In order to find how various cell’s receptors make response to various hormone. The Nobel prize 2012 in chemistry winner attached a radioactive iodine isotope to various hormones. Due to the radiation he then became able to find some receptors for example a receptor for adrenalin is β-adrenergic receptor. Finally The Nobel prize 2012 in chemistry winner became able to extract the receptor and found how it really work. Another Nobel prize 2012 in chemistry winner Brian K. Kobilka joined with the researchers team in 1980s. The Nobel prize 2012 in chemistry winner became able to determining and separate the sequences of the Gene that codes for the β-adrenergic receptor. After that when the researchers analyzed the gene they found that the receptor was similar to the receptor of the eye what is responsible for capturing the light. This discovery has proven that this is a family of receptors who are identical by sight and perform same types of function. This family is known as G-proteins-coupled receptors . the Nobel prize 2012 in chemistry winner Brian K. Kobilka and his team has been able to capture an image of β-adrenergic receptor at the moment when it was activated by a hormone and sending a signal into the cell in 2011. The Nobel prize 2012 in chemistry was given to this discovery because of it’s significance. Now it is possible to discover drug who will directly target this receptors for treatment and surely this is a step forward to the more effective treatment in the future.
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